A Brief History of the Thai Lanna Kingdom

Main article: Cultural Profile: Lanna Kingdom, Heirs of Northern Thailand

The Lanna Kingdom existed during a period of many concurrent ancient kingdoms of Southeast Asia. Its territory existed mostly in current-day northern Thailand, with small overlaps in Myanmar, China, and Laos. The Lanna Kingdom took shape after Tai ruler Mangrai conquered the Mon kingdom of Hariphunchai and created a new city that became the capital of Lanna, and was called Chiang Mai.

The Lanna Kingdom was an ethnic Tai state founded in the late 13th Century CE that ruled over the northern regions of Thailand for several centuries. During the late 1500s CE, the kingdom began to experience internal conflicts, power struggles, and financial difficulties. This combination factors paired with the aggressive expansionist policies of the Burmese Taungoo dynasty led to the Thai ruler of Lanna (and their southern Thai neighbor, Ayutthaya) falling to Burmese control.

Lanna disbanded officially in 1884 when Siam adopted it as one of its northern provinces, evolving into the modern nation-state of Thailand in 1949, where most of the Lanna Kingdom’s history exists today.

Although it is easy (and common) to include Lanna in with the overall history and culture of Thailand, the Lanna Kingdom’s long period of independence garnered it a distinct character in art, culture, and language which persists to this day.

Ancient Ruins of the Lanna Kingdom

Chiang Mai Province

Chiang Mai City

Old City

  • City Gate – Pratu Chiang Mai
  • City Gate – Pratu Suan Pung
  • City Gate – Pratu Suan Dok
  • City Gate – Pratu Chang Phuak
  • City Gate – Pratu Thapae
  • Fort- Hua Lin Corner
  • Fort- Sri Poom Corner
  • Fort – Katam Corner
  • Fort- Ku Hueang Corner
  • Wat Inthakhin
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Inthakhin Sadue Muang
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Jed Lin
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Lam Chang
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Puak Hong
  • Ruined Stupas at Wat Umong Mahathera Chan
  • Wat Chedi Luang
  • Wat Chetta
  • Wat Chiang Man
  • Wat Fon Soi
  • Wat Kitti
  • Wat Muen Kong
  • Wat Nong Ya Praek
  • Wat Phra Singh
  • Wat Prasat
  • Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang Ruined Stupa

Outer City

  • Kamphaeng Din Wall Remnant
  • Kamphaeng Din Wall Remnant
  • Kamphaeng Din Wall Remnant
  • Kamphaeng Din Wall Remnant
  • Kamphaeng Din Wall Remnant
  • Buried Temple at Wat Yang Kuang
  • Ruined Stupa (1)
  • Ruined Stupa (2)
  • Ruined Stupa (3)
  • Ruined Stupa (4)
  • Thipanet Bastion
  • Wat Chang Khong
  • Wat Chiang Khong
  • Wat Lao Siang
  • Wat Sang Ga Ram
  • Wat That Klang

Wiang Chet Lin

  • Wiang Ched Rin City Wall
  • Wiang Ched Rin City Wall
  • Wat Ku Din Khao
  • Wat Moo Boon

Wiang Suan Dok

  • Wiang Suan Dok City Wall
  • Wiang Suan Dok City Wall
  • Wiang Suan Dok City Wall
  • Wiang Suan Dok City Wall
  • Lanna Royal Cemetery
  • Wat Suan Dok

Outlier Ruins

  • Chedi Daeng Stupa
  • Khao Cetiya
  • Nong Ngu Archaeological Site
  • Ruined Gate at Wat Tamnak
  • Ruined Stupa
  • Ruined Stupa of Wat Khaung Sing
  • Ruined Stupa and Temple
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Chedi Plong
  • Ruined Stupa of Wat Ket Noi
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Lok Moli
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Pansao
  • Wat Ched Yot
  • Wat Chang Phuek
  • Wat Klang Nam
  • Wat Ku Tao
  • Wat Pan Sat
  • Wat Pa Oy
  • Wat Pa Tan
  • Wat Phra Chao Om Meang
  • Wat San Ta Hoi
  • Wat Um Oo

Doi Suthep

Fang

Wiang Kum Kam

  • Wat Bo Namthip
  • Wat Chedi Liem
  • Wat E-Kang
  • Wat Huanong
  • Wat Kan Thom Kumkam Phirom (Wat Chang Kham)
  • Wat Ko Mamuang Khiao
  • Wat Ku Aisi
  • Wat Ku Ailan
  • Wat Ku Jokpok
  • Wat Ku Khao
  • Wat Ku Makuluea
  • Wat Ku Maisong
  • Wat Ku Pa Dom
  • Wat Ku Ridmai
  • Wat Ku Tonpho
  • Wat Kumkam
  • Wat Kumkam #1
  • Wat Kumkam Teepram
  • Wat Kumkam Teepram #1
  • Wat Nan Chang
  • Wat Patan
  • Wat Phan Lao
  • Wat Phra Chai Ong Dum
  • Wat Phra Lul
  • Wat Phya Mangrai
  • Wat Pupia
  • Wat That Kaow
  • Wat That Noi
  • Wat Ubosot

Wiang Tha Kan

Outlier Ruins

Chiang Rai Province

Chiang Saen

Lamphun Province

Lamphun City

  • City Gate – Pratu Chang Si
  • City Gate – Pratu Lee
  • City Gate – Pratu Mahawan
  • City Gate – Pratu Thanang
  • Ku Kut Chedi (Wat Chamthewi)
  • Ku Chang Stupa
  • Ku Ma Stupa
  • Phra Nang Chamathewi Monunment
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Ton Kaeo
  • Ruined Stupa at Wat Kai Kaeo
  • Sudeva Rishi Monument
  • Wat Mahawan
  • Wat Phra That Hariphunchai
  • Wat Phra Yuen
  • Wat Phra Khong Ruesi
  • Wat Sangkharam (Pratu Lee)

Outlier Ruins

Lampang Province

Lampang City

Outlier Ruins

  • Wat Phra That Lampang Luang

Nan Province

Nan City

Phayao Province

Phayao City

Wiang Lo

Phrae Province

Phrae City