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Archaeological travel guide to the Dungeshwari (Mahakala) Cave temples in Gaya, India where legend says Buddha nearly starved himself to death while meditating on enlightenment.

In the various sects of Buddhism found throughout the world, there exists the common agreement that there are four important pilgrimage sites which embody the most important stages in the life of Siddhartha Guatama. Those are:

  • 1) Lumbini – Where Siddhartha Guatama was born
  • 2) Bodhgaya – Where Guatama achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree
  • 3) Sarnath – Where the Buddha gave his first sermon
  • 4) Kushinagar – Where Guatama died and achieved Parinirvana

After these four come sites of auxiliary importance, however many of them are much more spectacular, or at least peculiar, than the four main Buddhist pilgrimage sites. The Dungeshwari Cave Temple is one such that is more peculiar than spectacular.

The Story of Dungeshwari Cave Temple

Although the 4 major stages in Gautama’s life are said to be represented in the four pilgrimage sites, the places where he is thought to have spent other periods in his life are also important sites for devout followers.

The Dungeshwari Cave Temple (also called Mahakala Caves) is where Gautama is said to have spent 6-7 years (according to varying accounts) meditating in extreme asceticism. At least one point during this experience, he had starved himself to the edge of death. His only relief came when a local woman came to offer him a modicum of sustenance.

It was from this experience that he come to the conclusion that self-deprivation would not lead to his, nor others’, enlightenment. With this realization, he left the Dungeshwari Caves behind and proceeded to his eventual enlightenment at nearby Bodhgaya.

Dungeshwari temple buildings, oddly in a Tibetan style
Dungeshwari temple buildings, oddly in a Tibetan style

Visiting Dungeshwari Cave Temple

When first arriving, a barren and rocky landscape greets you at the base of a sheer cliff. In the shade of the few sparse trees that dot the area wait a sizable number of beggars who will insist on following you to the trail up to the temple or back to your vehicle.

The Mahakala Cave Temple from below
The Mahakala Cave Temple from below

At the driver’s suggestion to avoid this crowd, I hired a motorbike driver to take me up the first and steepest section of ramp toward the temple. He did this for 100 INR (1.40 USD).

Newly-built path to the Dungeshwari Caves
Newly-built path to the Dungeshwari Caves

Remnants of an older pilgrimage trail stand out beneath the newly-paved path heading up the mountain, said by a sign at the base to have been sponsored by a group from Laos. At the top of the zigzagging trail are a number temples, prayer flags, and even the writing that would lead you to believe you’d suddenly arrived in Tibet. That is, if the weather weren’t 40 degrees and the temples surrounded by rowdy monkeys.

From the top is a viewing platform facing westward toward the Phalgu River. Also known locally as the Niranjan River, this waterway is bone-dry more than half the year, leaving only the sandy riverbed in view. This was the case when I visited. People were walking across through the dried riverbed and a road was actually diverted through the sand while the nearby bridge over the river proper was being repaired. The other 5 months of the year, my driver told me, it was very full and strong.

A makeshift road through Phalgu River in dry season
A makeshift road through Phalgu River in dry season

Although I’ve read that there are 3 caves at the site, I was only able to find one actual “cave” at the top. This rocky overhand has since been plastered over in the Tibetan style and covered in golden leaf. Leading into the cave is a small, square hole carved into the side and adorned with 2 small, wooden doors. On either side of the doors is a small indentation for a Buddha idol.

Inside the larger “cave” temple
Inside the larger “cave” temple
Inside the larger “cave” temple
Inside the larger “cave” temple

Past this cave entrance is a Tibetan-style building encasing one of the outer cliff faces. Inside this structure are a number of glass displays holding various Buddhist artifacts and statues, including one life-size Buddha tucked away at the far end of the building.

A line of pilgrims were awaiting their turn to enter the lone cave. Due to its size, only a handful can fit inside at any given time.

Line to enter the small cave shrine
Line to enter the small cave shrine

Entrance to the main cave temple
Entrance to the main cave temple

Once inside the cave, the first thing your eyes are drawn to is a small, golden statue of the ascetic Gautama. Here, his emaciated features are heavily pronounced as a white robe is draped over him. In front of his pedestal is a donation box almost as large as the statue itself.

The golden ascetic Siddhartha Gautama statue inside the main cave
The golden ascetic Siddhartha Gautama statue inside the main cave

The blackened walls of the cave feature prayers painted in white and accented with small bits of gold leaf. Another 2 statues of figures I do not know are nearly hidden in red drapes on the right side of the cave. In front of them stand candles and another donation box.

It seemed a place where people were in and out quickly to pay their tribute, rather than spending long periods in meditation as their depicted idol had done. Perhaps this was due to the high traffic in and out of the cave, or that maybe that is simply the nature of this particular pilgrimage site. Either way, it is one of the smaller, less spectacular sites to visit along Gautama’s trail, but it is certainly worth seeing if in the Gaya area.

How to Get to Dungeshwari Cave Temple

GPS Coordinates: 24.73661, 85.04751

The Gaya countryside from atop the Dungeshwari Cave Temple
The Gaya countryside from atop the Dungeshwari Cave Temple

Dungeshwari Caves are located across the river from the towns of Gaya and Bodhgaya. The simplest way to get to the Dungeshwari cave would be to arrange a driver from your accommodation, as most in India are able to do this for you. This can be part of a larger trip around the area, or a direct trip there and back, which will take about 2-3 hours.

Otherwise, tuk-tuk drivers in both Gaya and Bodhgaya will be able to take you there. A round trip should cost no more than 5-600 INR.

Fast Facts

Fast Facts

Name: Dungeshwari (Mahakala) Cave Temple

Where: Gaya, Bihar, India


Description: Tibetan-style temples and a cave shrine where the Gautama Buddha is said to have almost died from starvation.

Getting there: Private transportation is needed.

Cost: Free


Dharmic religion centered on the belief of karma and release from the cycle of reincarnation. Based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama.

Dharmic religion centered on the belief of karma and release from the cycle of reincarnation. It stems from Vedic teachings and one of the oldest extant religions in the world.

Mahabodhi Temple
Ancient Buddhist temple located in Gaya, India built on the location where the Gautama Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Mahayana Buddhism
A sect of Buddhism focused on the reverence of bodhisattvas.

Mount Kailash
A mountain in southwestern Tibet considered the dwelling place of Shiva and associated with Mt. Meru in Hindu-Buddhist traditions.

Mount Meru
The metaphysical mountain said to represent the structure of the universe in Hindu-Buddhist cosmology.

Siddhartha Gautama
A legendary prince born in Lumphini, Nepal who would go on to found Buddhism. Known generally as the “Buddha”.

Buddhist monument used to enshrine sacred relics or memorialize important figures. Its dome, bell, or otherwise tower-like appearance is an architectural representation of Mount Meru, the cosmic mountain said to represent the structure of the universe in Hindu-Buddhist cosmology.

Theravada Buddhism
“The “Doctrine of the Elders” branch of Buddhism which draws its teachings from the Pali Canon. This sect is popular in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand.

The Hindu trinity of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer.

Benjamin Williams

Hi all, my name is Ben. I’m a native Michigander with a passion for human culture and new places, and more than that, new experiences. I have degrees in archaeology and writing, pursuing a career in the latter. However, I never quite lost that fascination for archaeological theory. For the past 11 years, I’ve been living and travelling between Asia, Europe, and North America, documenting ancient sites and the peoples who built them, and then adapting them into practical archaeological travel information at


  • Nice article, I am an Indian but I really don’t know about this place. Thanks for sharing. I will definitely visit this place.

    • Ben says:

      Thanks. I didn’t hear about it until about halfway through my first time in India. It was certainly a beautiful and curious area to check out, particularly with the Falgu River completely dried up at the time.

  • Ketut Cakra says:

    Wow, cool. Thank you for sharing the unique article. I have never heard about this temple before I read your blog. Keep posting and share your unique experiences

  • I’ve never heard of it either. I laughed at the oversized donation box!

  • ushasita says:

    Great post. I had not heard about this cave. I would love to go there someday. Out of curiosity did you pay in IDR in India ? IDR is Indonesian currency, INR is the currency in India. Hence the question.

  • Bhanuka Dhananjaya says:

    The other two statues on the floor near the Lord Buddha are god Shiva and goddess Durgeshwari… They were gods in Hinduism, but the reality is that they worshipped and considered Lord Buddha as the teacher of the whole Universe. Even the king of gods in Veda, the God Indra also worshipped Buddha, which is identified as Shakra in Buddhism. But Hidu humans don’t know and don’t like to accept it even if their gods, follow Buddha after Buddha enlightened.

    • Ben says:

      There are many Buddhist shrines and temples I’ve seen which also feature depictions of Hindu gods. Considering Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, I’ve always been a bit unclear on what role the Hindu gods and cosmology play in their beliefs.

What are your thoughts?

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